Tuesday, June 9, 2020

Pygmalion and Pretty Woman - Literature Essay Samples

The Greek Myth of Pygmalion, about a sculptor and the woman he creates and falls in love with, has been appropriated into various texts of different times and made relevant to a wide range of audiences. In particular, George Bernard Shaw’s English play Pygmalion and the American film Pretty Woman have adopted certain language, form and values, in order to communicate this same story to different audiences in specific cultural contexts.The universal themes addressed in the myth of Pygmalion characterize its suitability for these appropriations. Issues like beauty, prejudice, the search for perfection, relationships, and dreams are applicable to virtually everyone, and these themes are what give way to appropriations relevant to almost any cultural context. For example, the idea of the creation of a beautiful, living woman from a block of ivory, that is, the creation of something considered as a ‘nothing’ into a real and true person, has been applied to two other contexts. In Shaw’s Pygmalion the ‘nothing’ of this time is a poor flower girl, while in Pretty Woman’s cultural context a ‘nothing’ is a prostitute. Another example of a universal issue is the idea of society’s expectations and what is considered appropriate. In Pygmalion the sculptor is embarrassed to be in love with a mere statue, in Shaw’s time a flower-girl could never mix with high society, and in Pretty Woman, Edward keeps the fact that Vivien is a prostitute as quiet as possible. It is these underlying themes that are the basic links between the three texts, each with a different interpretation of the story and each conveying messages relevant to their cultural context.The aim of the play appropriation very much reflects the cultural context in which it was composed. George Bernard Shaw’s Pygmalion was set in 1912, a time when social barriers were extremely prominent and when a new class was emerging – the middle class. The lower class struggled while the upper classes looked down upon them. Shaw was aware that people were being judged largely on their class origin, their amount of money or how they looked, not their true worth as people. His second criticism was that â€Å"it is impossible for an Englishmen to open his mouth without making some other Englishman despise him†. He believed the English language and alphabet was in dire need of reform and that if all sounds were legitimized then all speech would be acceptable. This would in turn aid in breaking down the social barriers that existed during his time. Having observed these problems of his society, Shaw was determined to open the eyes of the people around him through the play he wrote. Therefore Pygmalion has a somewhat didactic purpose and a pointed restraint from romance, which would detract from the message. One of the ways in which this message is communicated is through the use of varied speech througho ut the play. From Pickering’s gentle politeness to everyone, â€Å"Excuse the straight question, Higgins. Are you a man of good character where women are concerned?† to Eliza’s cockney â€Å"Oo-ow, eez yo-ooa son, is e?† the speech is used to make us aware of these barriers and, in scenes such as the ‘at home’, language is a powerful tool. Mrs. Higgin’s guests partake in general chit-chat, which is gradually ridiculed when Eliza begins to join in. With her new accent she is now carefully listened to and admired, the guests thinking the strange meaning of the words are only part of a new fashion. â€Å"The new small-talk, you do it so awfully well!† says Freddy to Eliza. Shaw heavily ridicules this class when Eliza begins to discuss the â€Å"barometrical situation† in great depth. The use of humor draws closer attention to Shaw’s comments on the society of his time; that society engages in meaningless chit-c hat and bases opinions only on someone’s appearance. Shaw also felt the need to use the first ‘bloody’ on stage, something which gained him publicity, as it was considered a swear-word with which he was pushing the limits. This humor was his way of conveying his message to society, an almost shock-reaction, as when the swear-word was first uttered â€Å"the play stopped for a full minute till the audience had done laughing† said the Daily Sketch the day after. The clever use of such language would have been relevant only to the audience and cultural context of that time ‘bloody’ is barely considered a swear-word with the audience of today.The choice of medium strongly reflects the cultural context in which this text was composed. He felt the theatre was â€Å"growing in importance as a social organ† in the early 1900s and that drama must be concerned with conflict and ideas. So whilst choosing this popular and entertaining form, he was intent on writing plays that weren’t trivial and meaningless like many of the others. He felt that it was important for plays to make comments on society and often left the audience feeling a little uncomfortable watching performances. In Pygmalion, it was necessary that his criticisms of society and class barriers had to reach the people, particularly stuck in these classes, and in 1912 the theatre happened to be the most effective vehicle.The values communicated in these texts are probably one of the strongest reflections on the time period in which they were composed. Appearances, particularly beauty, and good manners are held in high regard. For example, in order for Eliza to be accepted into the upper classes/Ambassador’s garden party, she is dressed in jewels and beautiful gowns, conforming with society’s expectations. The idea of treating people in the correct manner is also referred to many times by various characters such as Eliza â€Å"I kno w I can be a lady to you, because you always treat me as a lady, and always will† and Higgins’ comment that â€Å"You shouldn’t cut your old friends now that you have risen in the world. That’s what we call snobbery†. This reflects the way this society places importance on manners and the way people are treated. Money often dictates status in this society and we see this through Alfred Dolittle’s thoughts on his fast encounter with a fortune: â€Å"A year ago I hadn’t a relative in the world except two or three that wouldn’t speak to me. Now I’ve fifty, and not a decent week’s wages among the lot of them†. George Bernard Shaw has taken the myth of Pygmalion and made it appropriate to his time through the adaptation of a ‘nothing’ to a flower-girl, a sculptor to a phonetician, and a Greek Myth to a didactic play on the downfalls of his society and its values. In the second appropriation of Pygmalion into Pretty Woman, the statue is a prostitute, the creator a businessman, and the form a feel-good Hollywood film created to rake in the millions.The aim of the film appropriation Pretty Woman strongly reflects the cultural context in which it was composed. The director’s main aim in this case was much less to make a social comment, more importantly to create an optimistic, almost fairytale (yet within reach) type story leaving the audience with both their hearts and their wallets open. This time the text must be something popular, that the widest audience possible will want to view. A huge reflection on the culture of this time is that in order for this to be popular, it is essential to have romance, comedy, and of course, a happy ending. The various forms of language used also place this film very clearly in the 90s cultural context. From Vivien’s â€Å"Man, this baby must corner like it’s on rails† car jargon, to Edward’s business talk, to the hotel concierge’s relentless courtesy to â€Å"Miss Vivien† One’s language does not immediately dictate class quite as much, although Vivien uses inappropriate language in various different situations, for example at the theatre â€Å"It was so good I almost peed my pants!† The use of language in this appropriation is more to emphasize the fact that the two are from different worlds.The form of film was obviously the smartest choice to make as the director’s aim in this case is to make money. Film is the medium of the masses, especially the Hollywood style, â€Å"everyone has a dream† feel-good film. This is definitely a reflection on society’s cravings for some kind of happiness and order within their lives, and perhaps to arouse that element of hope that their fairytale dream may just come true like Vivien’s. The use of popular music to add to this style of movie further enhances the effect and reflects this cultural context.The values in this film are related to money and success. The desirable position is to lead a rich, powerful life with a beautiful woman and a great car. Professionals and those who are educated lead comfortable lives and use appropriate behavior for various situations, while some people are treated as possessions or just on face value, in this case Vivien. She is told as soon as she enters a shop, dressed inappropriately, that â€Å"I don’t think we have anything in your size†. While society believes it has broken down the social barriers of the early 1900s, there are still strong elements of snobbery and class systems operating even today, and the values communicated in this film are a reflection of this.Both appropriations have used different language, form and values to make the myth of Pygmalion relevant to their own cultural contexts. However, it is still remarkable to observe how the simply story about the creation of a beautiful woman can be molded into both a critical attack on English society and an optimistic American film from Hollywood.

Friday, May 22, 2020

How Does The Language Affect Culture Is Formed And Retained

Language is one of the ways anthropological ways culture is formed and retained. Influenced by location, individual backgrounds and intermingling with others of different backgrounds, languages change often and rapidly. In the beginning of the English language and culture, the only way to intermingle was to conquer or be conquered. Dialects mixed, religion developed and histories, lof and entertainment were found nightly at the Mead-Hall. Although the entire family is not in one physical place, in 2014, most people are logging on to social media at night to share stories and memories while checking out the latest hashtags and earning ‘likes’. Beowulf is known as the first English epic, although its true genre is controversial, and†¦show more content†¦In the case of Beowulf, this led to the manuscript with Pagan beginnings and slight Christian undertones, instead of a strictly Pagan. Scops continued to try and bring Christianity into the communities as the religion began to filter into the villages. The Wanderer, se Anhaga, begins with a lone fighter who has just lost everything to a conquering group and is wandering aimlessly and without cause. He eventually comes to the conclusion that only in Pagan terms has he truly lost everything, but in Judeo-Christianity he can still have purpose and meaning. Beowulf evolved through the years with the language, while The Wanderer shows the evolution of the people’s religious inclinations. The years of the English culture following the Anglo-Saxon ways were convoluted with French Kings and a war which in turn cause the language to follow the same path as the people. The French language was considered proper as the nobility was filled with Frenchmen while Anglo-Saxon was common. This merging of cultures is still seen now with the differences in chicken vs. poultry, etc. When English was reestablished as the official language of England in 1363, there was an upsurge of writings celebrating the return. This time also saw the peak of the Church’s power in society along with society’s growing apprehension. Geoffrey Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales help to show the French’s influence in society, the major trends in society as well as his personal hits against the ‘flawed’

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Using Early Release Credit Programs - 832 Words

Do Nothing Prison administrators, backed by legislatures, can continue to utilize early release credit programs without policy changes. The continued use of early release credit programs would provide a reduction to overcrowding. However, in continuing to use current early credit programs, legislatures are not addressing public safety concerns and the lack rehabilitation. Offenders are being released into society far too early to enable them to perform restitution and undergo rehabilitation. Take an Incremental Approach An open dialogue would be required between the legislature, department of correction personnel and the public. This dialogue would provide policy changes to the early release credit programs that focused on the reduction in prison population of non-violent offenders, establish rehabilitative programs to provide re-entry guidance and most importantly, always keep public safety at the forefront of the discussions. â€Å"The earned credits are viewed as incentivizing inmates to participate in rehabilitative programs that, in turn, should reduce recidivism after release from prison† (Turner, 2011). The prison system should not be viewed as a warehouse for humans but rather as a much needed form of justice that provides public safety by removing violent offenders and rehabilitating those that are deemed non-violent. All parties involved should take note that the major flaws in credit programs are not the programs themselves but rather the lack of accoun tability andShow MoreRelatedTeen Pregnancy Is A Serious Problem1484 Words   |  6 Pagesoften. 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The inmates have food to eat and a place to sleep. Even thoughRead MoreThe Impact Of Public Relations On The Public Bureau1683 Words   |  7 Pagesvarious publications that trace the emergence of public relations to the Public Bureau which was established in 1900. There are however various scholars such as Bernays (2013) who trace the history of public relations to early forms of communication management and public influence in early civilization such as the movement that was aimed at abolishing slavery in England and the settling of the New World. This treatise will carry out a meticulous analysis on a concrete overview of the specialization whichRead MoreTruth In Sentencing Policies and the Effects on Courts and Prisons1563 Words   |  7 PagesWhen deterrence fails, criminals need to be identified and held accountable for their actions. Law enforcement enforces many different crimes; some of the most serious crimes are violent crimes. 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Data breach reporting is extremely important because individual’s personal and financial information is one of the biggest targets of hackers. After obtaining hundreds, thousands, or even millions of credit card numbers, social security numbers, or bank account information, hackers sell the information on the dark web to a wholesaler who then sells them individually or in bulk to whoever wants to buy and use them for a relatively inexpensive price consideringRead MorePersonal Statement : Identifying Professional Goals1185 Words   |  5 Pagesworry about making the wrong choice when it comes to picking a career field of study. This proved to be a definitive struggle for myself, especially early into my college experience but there was always something inside of me that longed to help others. This made my decision to pursue a Bachelor of Science degree in nursing through the accelerated program, a no brainer once I discovered that there was still a way for me to obtain a nursing degree after spending so many years’ prior, pursuing others

Thursday, May 7, 2020

Critique Of The Gay Marriage Is Good For America - 1445 Words

Critique of Sullivan’s â€Å"Why Gay Marriage is Good for America† Debates about gay marriage continue to simmer within American public discourse, though much of the more heated rhetoric has calmed since the earliest efforts to legalize same-sex marriage succeeded in numerous states. These debates have spanned many topics, ranging from religion to politics and beyond. Andrew Sullivan, a prominent gay and self-described conservative political commentator, addressed one angle of the issue in his July 19, 2011 Newsweek Magazine article â€Å"Why Gay Marriage is Good for America.† Through a mixture of personal reflection, social commentary, and political argumentation, Sullivan’s article is less a defense of gay marriage than it is a defense of the idea that gay marriage is compatible with conservative political values. Although Sullivan makes a good case for his position in the article, his argument is ultimately under-developed; the lengthy personal reflections serve to reinforce a relatively minor point in the context of the larger argu ment, shifting focus away from the more relevant portions of the argument. Much of the first half of â€Å"Why Gay Marriage is Good for America† describes the author’s personal experience as a child growing up with the knowledge that he was different, eventually realizing that his feelings of being an outsider arose from his homosexuality. Sullivan writes, describing his pre-pubescent realization that he was not like other men he knew, that â€Å"I knew one thingShow MoreRelatedHomosexuality in Same Love by Macklemore with Ryan Lewis and Mary Lambert1006 Words   |  5 Pagesagainst the issues of discrimination, gay rights, and marriage equality that we see in todays era. He uses two fallacies in the song, but Macklemore’s use of the three rhetorical appeals of ethos, pathos, and logos in his song â€Å"Same Love,† have a great level of success in proving the importance of gay rights and marriage equality. Right away Macklemore establishes his credibility and knowledge, ethos, by stating, When I was in the third grade I thought that I was gay, Cause I could draw, my uncle wasRead MoreNegative Effects Of Prostitution1376 Words   |  6 Pagesneeds outside the suite, because it will be a violation, they need to be inside their business room. It’s good that way because it’s safe they would know their client name and face and they wouldn’t worry about being forced to do anything they don’t want to do. Congress should have laws saying that they will be protected if gone beyond any extinct they will get help, not penalize them; what good does that do? Another solution is that they need to provide counseling and because not everyone wants toRead MoreDo Public Debates Help Or Hurt Candidate Success?868 Words   |  4 Pagesof America, it was their first presentation of John F. Kennedy. When Kennedy, the 42-year-old Irish-American Junior Senator, was approached abo ut the idea of debating his political opponent on television, he agreed instantaneously. While on the other hand, Vice President Nixon had just concluded 12 days of hospitalization for a mishap knee injury. Richard Nixon’s sweaty, pale and underweight, appeared sickly, while on the other hand a glowing Kennedy, self –confident, and not to mention good looksRead MoreA Native American Who Demonstrated Homosexual Tendencies1945 Words   |  8 Pagestheir nature, two-spirited people were made religious leaders and teachers in the society. They also served various unique roles in the society and their marriages were legitimate. 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Baby Boomers1417 Words   |  6 Pages† While we have been striving to be a more tolerant and accepting society, which is a good thing, we have inadvertently created a bubble in which sensitive subjects are untouchable and any slight can be interpreted as harassment. Millennials are a generation more tolerant than previous generations. We open our arms to immigrants, title nine, gay marriage, and interracial dating. We believe diversity is a good thing, but lately, it seems like that doesn t include a diversity of thought. While strivingRead MoreThe Reality Of The Lgbtq Community1404 Words   |  6 PagesI analyze these two pop culture productions because they are reflections of the current social-political setting in North America. Constituting and diminishing social boundaries, pop culture has wide-reaching influence to generate new sets of values and ideals in audiences (Fedorak 2009). Originating in mainstream pop culture, discourses of gender and sexuality The Kids Are All Right and The Fosters support homonormative politics, which privileges some lesbian mothers as intelligible over othersRead MoreLegalization of Same Sex Marriage9779 Words   |  40 PagesTHE LEGALIZATION OF SAME SEX MARRIAGE AS ASSESED BY CITHM STUDENTS S.Y. 2011-2012 A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the College of International Tourism And Hospitality Management LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Tourism By Ang, Dianne Marie M. Bayot, Donalynne B. October 2011 CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND INTRODUCTION    In our generation today, homosexualsRead MoreThe kitchen is arguably the last battle – ground for reproduction of gender relations in the western world. Discuss.2158 Words   |  9 Pagesthere. The low-calorie food is seen as feminine food in opposition to the high – calorie food or meat as masculinity food. Clark (2013:235) Swenson (2013: 140, 145) The sine qua non (an essential condition , the thing is absolutely necessary) of a good family relations is a joint dinner prepared wholly by the women. The double message is that the woman should cook to maintain traditional unity of family (woman in feeding) and that is her responsibility. Swenson (2013:145), El – Tom (2014) She mustRead MoreDecision Making Is At The Core Of The United States Supreme Court2095 Words   |  9 Pagesthat the decisions in the aforementioned cases show an overall rightward shift of the court with unprecedented severity. While Toobin believes the Roberts Court as a whole is increasingly making more conservative decisions, he focuses much of his critique on Chief Justice John Roberts. Toobin believes he is the catalyst for inciting the dramatic move to the right that the court has seemingly made during his tenure as chief justice. The case that Toobin believed would provide his argument and thus

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Quiz on Dantes Inferno - 464 Words

Question 1. Dante Alighieris Inferno is the first part of the Divine Comedy poem he wrote during the fourteenth century. The text describes Dantes travels through hell as Virgil, the Roman poet, guides him and provides him with information concerning each segment of hell. Virgil proceeds with emphasizing the importance of being familiar with the circles of hell in order to be able to successfully advance through it. He informs Dante concerning the souls in the first circle of hell: They sinned not; yet no merit claimd by them Availeth aught, because they never knew The Grace Baptisimal, portal of thy creed And if they lived before the day of Grace They could not in right spirit (Canto IV, 34-37). Upon Dantes request, Virgil explains that it is possible for someone to leave Limbo and go to heaven. He describes how as a result of a Potent one coming to Limbo, Adam and Abraham were among a group of people who left the first circle of Hell. Socrates, however, is still present in Limbo, as he is practically similar to everyone there, in spite of his tendency to look further than most. Achilles is present in the second circle of hell as a consequence of his unable to resist sensual love. He is present in the first circle of hell where individuals are actually punished, as Limbo is simply a location to hold people who were not baptized, but who should not necessarily be punished for this. Question 2. Dante decides to accompany Virgil in a journey throughShow MoreRelatedNursing Scholarship Essay2290 Words   |  10 Pages5/29/10 QMAP Certification Java, C++, Visual Basic, HTML, Office Suite, FrontPage, Internet, SPSS, MS Project, Dreamweaver, 60 wpm typing speed, Adobe PageMaker, Photoshop, E-search AWARDS Dean’s List. 1999 – 2004. Best Non-Fiction Essay. â€Å"Quiz #1.† Colorado State University Professor’s Choice Award. 2005. PUBLICATIONS â€Å"Nitpicky Research Assistant Coding Newspaper Articles and Watching Buffy at the Same Time.† Matter. Issue IV. 2004. â€Å"A Hair Story.† Instant Enlightenment. July 2007

Bluebells of Scotland Free Essays

Bluebells of Scotland â€Å"Bluebells of Scotland† is a piece written and composed in the late romantic era around 1899 by Arthur Pryor. The piece was composed from a traditional Scottish folk song for the trombone and orchestral accompaniment. In the late 1800s the trombone was not viewed as an instrument that could perform particularly difficult pieces. We will write a custom essay sample on Bluebells of Scotland or any similar topic only for you Order Now Compelled by society’s negative opinion of the trombone, Pryor composed â€Å"Bluebells of Scotland† in order to display the capabilities of the trombone and to emphasize that it could play very difficult pieces. This piece is a little more upbeat and physical than other pieces of the same time period, but what makes this piece particularly unique is that it is the only piece with a high level of difficulty for trombone that was composed in the time of its conception. The piece is intended to be accompanied by an orchestra but can be played with piano accompaniment as well. The characteristics of this piece are very dynamic and free. The expressivity of the piece is left up to the interpretation of the performer which allows for a large amount of freedom and creativity. There are quite a few cadences that allow the performer to take control of tempo and dynamics. â€Å"Bluebells of Scotland† includes both very slow and lyrical passages as well as many very quick and difficult runs, double-tonguing, octave jumps, lips slurs, and a vast amount of high register notes. The introduction of the piece begins with a triumphant cadence peaking at a high register C, which slowly decays into a very lyrical melodic sequence that takes the shape of the original lyrics, which read: â€Å"Oh where, tell me where, is your highland laddie gone? Oh where, tell me where, is your highland laddie gone? He’s gone with streaming banners where noble deeds are done. And it’s oh! in my heart I wish him safe at home. † The piece then moves into a much more difficult technical variation of the original melody and progressively builds in speed until the also very triumphant ending. Around the time the then eighteen or nineteen year old Arthur Pryor composed â€Å"Blue Bells of Scotland†, he had only been playing the slide trombone for three to four years. Pryor was given the slide trombone as a payment to a debt and taught himself to play it fairly quickly. Amazingly, Pryor wrote the piece with the knowledge of only a few slide positions and would use false tones and alternate positions for notes in the fifth, sixth, and seventh positions. Despite this, â€Å"Blue Bells of Scotland† is still one of Pryor’s most memorable pieces and is still widely known today. A few years after composing â€Å"Bluebells of Scotland† he arrived in New York by invitation of John Philip Sousa. After arriving to be in Sousa’s new concert band, Pryor was offered by Frank Holton the position of principle chair trombonist. When Holton left the position, Pryor became the featured soloist of over 10,000 solos as principle trombonist for Sousa’s band. â€Å"Blue Bells of Scotland† serves as a constant reminder of the trombone’s capabilities as a very lyrical instrument and its ability for technical prowess as well. Arthur Pryor inspired interest in the trombone with his virtuoso playing, and â€Å"Bluebells of Scotland† in particular has been a standard of trombone literature for decades and a favorite challenge for advanced players†(Kleiner). The piece will always have a special place in the hearts of all trombonists, both past and future. Works Cited http://www. celticscores. com/sheet-music/628_Blue_Bells_of_Scotland http://bluebellstrilogy. com/blog/2010/05/arthur-pryor-blue-bells-and-trombone/ How to cite Bluebells of Scotland, Essay examples

Effect of Communication on Team-Free-Samples-Myassignmenthelp.com

Question: Analyse the Ethical Implications of the Use of various Communication Systems, Conflict resolution and Modalities in Diverse, Contemporary Workplaces ILO2. Answer: Thesis statement- In this essay the role of teamwork in modern workplace and the effect of communication and ethical communication on team effectiveness and team performance is studied. Teamwork plays an important role in the modern workplace. University students experience teamwork as a part of their assignment. This fosters flexibility and university students learn to collaborate with team members which prepare them to take responsibility of teams in future of the modern workplace. The job advertisements clearly reflect the ability to work effectively within a team as an important criterion for teamwork. Organizational team work is a complex process. Some teams perform better than other teams and some individuals are better at working with others. Skills, abilities and characteristics like extraversion, emotional intelligence, conscientiousness, flexibility, ability to communicate effective, mutual trust and respect and empathy generally increase team performance(Galegher, Kraut and Egido 2014).Individuals who possess these qualities also work better within a team. Team members can leverage the strengths of individual members of the team and minimize the weakness of individual members which increases the team performance. Tasks can be divided according to the competence of team members in an effective team. Thus teamwork helps in achieving organizational goals and objectives. In modern day global business scenario, there are prevalence of virtual teams and diverse teams. Organizations have to adopt strategies to manage this type of teams. In this essay the literature is studied to understand the complex process of teamwork, team performance and team effectiveness. The role of communication in building effective teams is reviewed from literature. Ethical communication is linked with team effectiveness and teamwork in this essay (Bovee, Thill and Raina 2016). Effective teams are comprised of team members who have the skills, knowledge and abilities to accomplish team goals. In effective teams, goals are realistic and reasonable and tasks are optimally divided among team members. Individual members of an effective team take responsibility of the task allotted and contribute substantially towards team goal (Katzenbach and Smith 2015).Team members acknowledge the accomplishments and achievements of each other. An effective team receives support from team leaders and the organization and transformational leadership plays a vital role in effective teams. Effective teams follow an open communication model with free flow of information among all members of the team (Krner et al. 2015). There are several models for an effective team. Tuckmans stages model is a well-known model for team effectiveness. It is a five-staged model comprising of stages like forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning. In the forming stage, the ground rules of a team are established. The team members are introduced to each other at this stage and they discover ways to know each other. The second stage of formation of team is the storming stage. In this stage, plans are formulated by team members along with co-ordination from team leaders. The goals and objectives of the team are established at this stage and an agenda is set to accomplish the goals. The third stage of team formation is the norming stage. At this stage, the team members become cohesive and learn to resolve conflicts. The team members take the responsibility of individual goals which will lead to the accomplishment of the objectives of the team. In the fourth stage of team formation, that is, the performing stage, team members coordinate and collaborate with each other to accomplish the objectives that were set in the storming stage of team formation. In the adjourning stage, the members of the team part ways to move on to other projects. The adjourning stage is applicable for temporary teams of an organization which are formed to handle a critical task or to complete a specific project (Berlin, Carlstrm and Sandberg 2012).Research has provided attributes that are essential for successful teamwork. These attributes are commitment to shared goals and success of a team, interdependence on team members so that goals can be accomplished together, interpersonal skills like honesty and trustworthiness, an open communication model with transparency and constructive feedback, commitment to leadership, accountability and processes of a team and appropriate composition of a team((Berlin, Carlstrm and Sandberg 2012). Crupy and Hogans rocket model was developed after conducting research on several organizational teams. There are eight components of the model like context, norms, mission, talent, morale, power, buy-in and results which increase team performance. Context helps to reach consensus among team members in challenging situation, mission is the team goal s, talent is related to roles and responsibility of team members, norms are the code of conduct, buy-in focuses of engagement of team members, power focuses on authority within teams, morale together with other components guide team member to achieve desired performance and results. An open communication improves team work as discussed (Belbin 2012). Communication plays a vital role in team effectiveness and teamwork. However, verbal communication sometimes creates misunderstandings among team members. Thus effective teams often rely on written communication which provides record, better transparency and clarity. In effective teams, communication plays a role of paramount importance to resolve conflicts among team members. Communication among members of a team results in free flow of ideas within the team and thus teams which communicate effectively can foster creativity and innovation among team members. There are appropriate methods for communication which are adopted by members of an effective team (Broadbent 2013). These methods of communication include face-to-face communications, group meeting, letter, memos, e-mail. An effective team clearly identifies barriers to communication among team members and develops ways to overcome these barriers to increase productivity among team members. The barriers to communication within a team can be due to issues related to culture and diversity, physical distractions, conflicts among team members, lack of understanding and physical barriers among members of a team as it is clearly reflected in virtual teams where team members are physically dispersed. In an effective team, the team members use effective verbal communication skills and written communication is clear, concise and professional. Listening skills are of paramount importance in effective teams. Team members of a highly productive team uses appropriate listening techniques like encouraging, clarifying, paraphrasing, reflecting, summarizing and validating. The team members should adopt empathy while listening to each other (Cooke et. al 2013). Non-verbal communication also plays a vital role in effective teams. Use of proper gesture is of paramount importance in certain teams like cross-cultural teams. Communication helps to motivate team members and create shared identity among members of an effective te am. Effective communication build trust among members of a team and team members can share their ambitions and goals among each other and celebrate their accomplishments of goals by communicating effectively. Thus communication increases the productivity of the team. It is essential to skillfully handle the thoughts, emotions and feelings of members of a team for building an effective team. An open communication model increases the emotional intelligence of team members and they are able to empathize with each other to handle crisis in an effective way. Team members work together on a project and have common goals and thus conflict arises among team members due to difference of opinion (Walumbwa, Morrison and Christensen 2012). Constructive conflicts are important to team members because it helps in free flow of ideas and lead to brainstorming. Communication plays a vital role in resolving conflicts among team members of an effective team. In a highly productive team, there is an op en communication model and managers of the team communicate effectively with team members. An effective team receives clear flow of information about goals and objectives because mangers communicate effectively with team members. However, there is little research on communication styles in effective team. Though research shows evidence that team members of effective teams communicate with external environment to gather information about customers, competitors and market. Ethics and ethical communication can be linked with team work, team productivity and effectiveness of a team. Organizational ethics are clearly communicated among members of a team and team members of an effective team abide by a set of ethical values .Ethics like integrity, trust, honesty, justice, respect, responsibility, reasonableness are important to guide the team members during ethical dilemma. The members of an effective team abide by organizational ethics like implementing best quality in organizational process to create value for customers, respecting diversity among team members and creating strategies to fit the values, visions and goals of an organization. The members of an effective team follow a code of ethics. Unethical behavior from team members is detrimental for the reputation of an organization, thus effective teams are made aware about the organizational ethics from the beginning of team formation. Effective teams receive training on ethical programs from manager s and team leaders. Mangers of an effective team abide by ethical code of conduct and thus act as role models for members of a team. The members of an effective team emulate the ethical behaviors of their managers and thus the code of conduct becomes more credible for members of the team (Ghorbanhosseini 2013).Members of an effective team are rewarded for following the ethical code of conduct so that they can act as a source of inspiration and can set example for rest of the employees of an organization. Research shows that business organizations get involved in several ethical issues because the present business scenario is competitive and volatile. One of such ethical issues is stereotyping and discrimination which is prevalent among team members of a diverse team in a global organizational setting. Biases and judgments are developed towards members of a team who belong to different culture and ethnicity which is unethical and results in decrease in productivity among team members . Ethical communication plays a vital role to manage a diverse team and to handle both surface level and deep level diversity among team members (Ferri 2014). Ethical communication leads to equality and fair judgment among members of an effective team. It is reflected from literature that organizations get involved in ethical issues like poor focus on quality in organizational and business process. Ethical communication plays a vital role to resolve this type of ethical issue because the standards, expectations and objectives about the quality are clearly communicated to members of an effective team before the commencement of a project. Organizational teams get involved in ethical issues like customer dissatisfaction due to inadequate market research about the expectations and buying behavior of customers (Tjosvold and Tjosvold 2015).Ethical communication can play an important role to handle a customer-related crisis and by adopting a clear ethical communication model, members of an effective team can develop an informative communication model for customers (Ulmer, Sellnow and Seeger 2013).Also ethical communication plays vital role to handle issues like unfair judgment because of ambiguity in understanding roles and responsibilities among team members. Members of an effective team communicate ethically among each other and thus have clear idea about individual roles (Tubbs 2012). It can be concluded that there are various models for team effectiveness. There is evidence from the models of team effectiveness that team work and cohesion among team members increases the productivity of a team. The models of team effectiveness reflect that organizational support plays a pivotal role in effective teams. It is revealed from literature that communication can be linked with team effectiveness and productivity of a team. A clear communication approach can build cohesion among team members and help in building trust among members of an effective team. Both verbal and non-verbal communication is important in effective teams and direct communication like face-to-face communication is more effective than indirect mode of communication. Communication can also be linked with ethics. Members of an effective team follow a code of ethics. Ethical communication play vital role in resolving issues related to discrimination and biases within a diverse team and ensures fair judgme nt within team members. Ethical communication resolves issues related to conflicts that arise due to difference in opinion among team members. University students undertake teamwork throughout their studies to prepare themselves well for future when they will enter corporate world and have to collaborate with team members. Teamwork increases flexibility, adaptability and emotional intelligence among university students. Organizations should adopted flatter structures with less hierarchy and follow an open communication model to boost teamwork. It is recommended that managers and team leaders should act as role model during ethical training programs. Team members should receive training about organizational ethics. Reference Lists Belbin, R.M., 2012.Team roles at work. Routledge. Berlin, J.M., Carlstrm, E.D. and Sandberg, H.S., 2012. Models of teamwork: ideal or not? A critical study of theoretical team models.Team Performance Management: An International Journal,18(5/6), pp.328-340. Bovee, C.L., Thill, J.V. and Raina, R.L., 2016.Business communication today. Pearson Education India. 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